Words and Meanings

ACR = Adobe Camera Raw

Apple = Make of computer that popularised desktop publishing and is the mainstay of creative industries.

Address = domain name

Adobe Bridge is a file browser. It doesn’t open, edit or convert anything, it hands the files to the appropriate applications – Photoshop, Camera Raw, Acrobat, Illustrator and even ms word.

Adjustment Layers = a group of useful, non-destructive image tools that add colour and tonal adjustments to your image without permanently changing its pixels.

Aperture =  The size of the opening in the lens

Aspect ratio = Ratio between width and height (or depth). Key property of film formats as well as in publishing and film media.

AWB = Auto White Balance

Background = The part of a scene or picture that is or seems to be farthest towards the back and from the viewer.

Balance = The distribution of visual elements in a photograph creating a feeling of weight or stability in the work. Symmetrical balance distributes visual elements evenly in an image. Asymmetrical balance is found when visual elements are not evenly distributed in an image.

Black point = A small area/ areas of an image that is maximum black.

Burning-in = refers to darkening part of the image – Digital image manipulation technique that mimics darkroom burning-in. It is applied by brushes of varying sizes and has such effect as darkening – by increasing the grey content (upping equally the red, green, and blue) – of affected pixels.

Burst mode = You can take photos one at a time, or you can continue snapping photos as long as you hold the button down

BMP = BitMaP: A file format native to the PC-based Window operating system

Camera Raw = it is a plug-in piece of software in Adobe Photoshop which allows importing and enhancing of raw images.

Channels Tab = Photoshop uses channels to store colour information about an image or to store selections. Photoshop creates colour information channels automatically.

Composition = The arrangement or structure of the formal elements that make up the image.

Content = The meaning of an image, beyond its overt subject matter.

Contour = The outline of an object or shape.

Contrast = Strong visual differences between light and dark, varying textures, sizes, juxtapositions, etc.

Curves = ” The horizontal axis of the graph represents the input levels (original image values) and the vertical axis represents the output levels (new adjusted values). As you add control points to the line and move them, the shape of the curve changes, reflecting your image adjustments.” Using the Curves in Photoshop – Adobe Help Center

Daguerrotype = One of the earliest forms of photography, invented by Louis Jacques Daguerre in 1839, made on a copper plate polished with silver.

Depth of field = How much of the image is in focus. The camera will focus on one distance, but there’s a range of distance in front and behind that point that stays sharp

DNG = Digital Negative Format

Documentary Photography = Photographs whose main purpose is to record a place, person(s) or event.

Dodging = refers to lightening only part of the image.

DOF = Depth of Field – How large the focused area in a photo is: Wide aperture gives a shallow DoF, A small aperture gives a deep DoF, Telephoto lens appears to give a shallow DoF, A wider angle lens appears to give a deep depth of field.

Exposure = The amount of time that light-sensitive material is exposed to light.

Exposure compensation = A way to tell the camera that you’d like the exposure to be lighter or darker. It’s measured in stops of light, with negative numbers resulting in a darker image and positive ones creating a brighter shot.

File format = How your camera lens will record the image or image file. Raw files contain more information than JPGs, which makes them more suitable for photo editing in various editing software.

Focus = The area which appears clearest or sharpest in the image; also the area of interest or activity.

Focal length = The distance in millimetres between the lens and the image it forms on the film. It informs the angle of view (how much of what is being shot will be captured) and the magnification (how large things will appear). Essentially, the focal length is how ‘zoomed in’ your images will appear

Flash sync = A flash is a burst of light—flash sync determines when the flash fires. Normally, the flash fires at the beginning of the photo, but changing the flash sync mode adjusts when that happens.

Framing = What the photographer has placed within the boundaries of the photograph.

Gamma Correction = A technique that enables you to adjust how an image is displayed on your monitor. Incorrect gamma settings can make images look too dark or washed out.

Healing Brush = A tool that allows you to fix image imperfections such as scratches, blemishes, etc.

HEIC = The file format name Apple has chosen for the new HEIF standard – High Efficiency Image Format which is a more streamlined way of storing image files. It allows digital photographs to be created in smaller files sizes, all while retaining higher image quality than its JPEG alternative.

Histogram = A histogram panel displays the tonal range of an image.

Illuminance = Light Falling on a Surface – Incident light. The amount of light falling on a surface is “illuminance”, and is measured in lux (metric unit = lumen/m2) or foot-candles (English unit = lumen/ft2). 1 foot-candles equals 10.8 lux. This value does not depend on the material properties of the surface being illuminated. This is what a light meter measures. A typical value of the sunlight illuminance on a sunny day is 11000 lux, and on an overcast day is around 1000 lux.

ISO = International organisation for Standardisation. It measures the sensitivity of the image sensor, the lower the number the less sensitive the camera is to light and the finer grain. A higher iso will give a faster shutter speed which is good for freezing movement.

JPEG = Files for the internet after editing > Save As…

Levels = a tool that moves and stretches the brightness levels of an image histogram. It can adjust brightness, contrast and tonal range.

Light = Illuminated areas of the photograph that are highlighted, creating shadows, may be harsh or soft, direct or reflected.

Long exposure = An image that has been exposed for a long time or uses a long shutter speed. This technique is useful for shooting still objects in low light (used often by landscape photographers), or rendering moving objects into an artistic blur.

Luminance = Light Reflected from a Surface. Luminance is the light reflected off of surfaces and measured in candelas per square meter (cd/m2), or Nits (in imperial units). Luminance is what we perceive when looking at a scene, or when using a camera. The quality and intensity of the light that reaches our eye does depend on the material properties of the surfaces (color, reflectance, texture). This what the camera metering system measures.

Luminous flux = The amount of light being given off by a particular source, in all directions, is called luminous flux (or “luminous power”) and is a measure of the total perceived power of light. It is measured in lumens. Lumens are a useful metric for comparing how bright a light source is. For example, a 60W incandescent bulb has a luminous of 850 lumens.

Luminous intensity = The amount of light that travels in certain directions from the source is called the “luminous intensity” and is measured in candelas. A candle emits about one candela in all directions (this candle would emit a total of 12.6 lumens).

Noise = Little flecks in an image also known as called grain. Images taken at high ISOs have a lot of noise, so it’s best to use the lowest ISO you can for the amount of light in the scene.

Pages = never change and are static

Plugins = apps you choose for specific functions

PNG = Files for the internet after editing > Save As…

Portrait = A work of art that represents a person, a group of people, or an animal. Portraits usually show what a person looks like as well as revealing something about the subject’s personality.

PSD (Photoshop) = Files for high-quality composite images with layers.

Raw = Raw captures all the data as captured by the cameras sensor.

Shape = An enclosed two-dimensional space defined by a boundary, such as line, color, value, and texture.

SS = Shutter Speed – The shutter speed is how long that shutter stays open, written in seconds or fractions of a second, like 1/200 s. The longer the shutter stays open, the more light that is let in. Anything that moves while the shutter is open will become a blur.

Space = Refers to the distance or area between, around, above, below, or within things. It can be described as two-dimensional or three-dimensional; as flat, shallow, or deep; as open or closed; as positive or negative; and as actual, ambiguous, or illusory.

Texture = The feel or appearance of the surface of the photograph; its smoothness, roughness, softness, etc.

Theme = A unifying or dominant idea in one or many works of art.

TIFF = Tagged Image File Format. A computer file format for high-quality general work.

TTL = through-the-lens (TTL) Flashes, sometimes also called speedlights, have two different modes. These are TTL flash or Through The Lens, and a manual mode.

Value = The degree of lightness or darkness of a surface, referring to luminosity.

White point = A small area/ areas of an image that is maximum white.

Wireless flash trigger = Wireless flash triggers allow your camera to communicate with a flash without a physical connection to the camera. That allows the flash to fire perfectly timed for the photograph. 

XMP = extreme memory profile

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